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It grasps things placed in its hands so strongly it can nearly support its own weight. Perhaps most important, newborns come equipped with powerful learning mechanisms that allow them to change rapidly so they can interact increasingly effectively with their world, even if that world is unlike the one Fruit and vegetables - Better Health Channel distant ancestors faced. Senses, reflexes and learning mechanisms - this is what we start with, and it is quite a lot, when you think about it.

If we lacked any of these capabilities at birth, we would probably have trouble surviving. But here is what we are not 4 page essay on bullying with: Not only are we not born with such things, we also don't develop them - ever. We don't store words or the rules that tell us how to manipulate them.

We don't create representations of visual stimuli, store them in 500 word essay short-term memory buffer, and then transfer the representation into a long-term imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint device.

We imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint retrieve information or images or words from imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint registers. Computers do all of these things, but organisms do not.

Computers, quite literally, process information - numbers, letters, words, formulas, images. The information imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint has to be encoded into a imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint computers can use, which means patterns of ones and zeroes 'bits' organised into imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint chunks 'bytes'. On my computer, each byte contains 64 bits, and a certain pattern of those bits stands for the letter d, another for the letter o, and another for the letter g.

Side by side, those three bytes form the word dog. One single image - say, the photograph of my cat Henry on my desktop - is represented by a very specific pattern of a million of these bytes 'one megabyte'surrounded by some special characters that tell the computer to expect an image, not a word.

Computers, quite literally, move these patterns from place to imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint in different physical storage areas etched into electronic components. Sometimes they also copy the patterns, and sometimes they transform them in various ways - say, when we are correcting errors in a manuscript or when we are touching up a photograph.

The rules computers follow for moving, copying and operating on these arrays of data are also stored inside the computer. Together, a set of rules is called a 'program' or an 'algorithm'.

A group of algorithms that work together to help us do something like buy stocks or find a date online is called an 'application' - what most people now call an 'app'. Forgive me for this introduction to computing, but I need to be clear: They really store and retrieve. They really have physical memories.

They really are guided in imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint they do, imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint exception, by algorithms. Humans, on the other hand, do not - never did, never will. Given this reality, why do so many scientists talk about our mental life as if we were computers?

In his book In Our Own Imagethe artificial intelligence expert George Zarkadakis describes six different metaphors people have employed over the past 2, years to try to explain human intelligence. In the earliest one, eventually preserved in the Bible, humans were formed from clay or dirt, which an intelligent god then infused with its spirit.

That spirit 'explained' our intelligence - grammatically, at least. The invention of hydraulic engineering in the 3rd century BCE led to the popularity of dissertation premi?re guerre mondiale totale theories of human intelligence - again, largely metaphorical in imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint.

In the mids, inspired by recent advances in communications, the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz compared the brain to a telegraph. The mathematician John von Neumann stated flatly that the function of the human nervous system is 'prima facie digital', drawing parallel after parallel between the components of the computing machines of the day and the components of the human brain Each metaphor reflected the most advanced thinking of the era that spawned it.

Predictably, just a few years after the dawn of computer technology in the s, the brain was said to operate like a computer, with the role of imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint Creative writing courses newcastle nsw played by the brain itself and our thoughts serving as software.

The landmark event that launched what is now broadly called 'cognitive science' was the publication of Language and Communication by the psychologist George Miller. Miller proposed that the mental world could be studied rigorously using concepts from information theory, computation and linguistics. This kind of thinking was taken to its ultimate expression in the short imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint The Computer and the Brainin which the mathematician John von Neumann stated flatly that the function of the human nervous system is 'prima facie digital'.

Although he acknowledged that little was actually known about the role the brain played in human reasoning and memory, he drew parallel after parallel between the components of the computing machines of the day and the components of the human brain.

Propelled by subsequent advances in both computer technology and brain research, an ambitious multidisciplinary effort to understand human intelligence gradually developed, firmly rooted in the idea that humans are, like computers, information processors. This effort now involves thousands of researchers, consumes billions of dollars in funding, and has generated a vast literature consisting of both technical and mainstream articles and books. The Secret of Human Thought Revealedexemplifies this perspective, speculating about the 'algorithms' of the brain, how the brain 'processes data', traducir en espa?ol do your homework in its imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint.

The information processing IP metaphor of human intelligence now dominates human thinking, both on the street and in the sciences. There is virtually no form of discourse about intelligent human behaviour that proceeds without employing this metaphor, just as no form of discourse about intelligent human behaviour could proceed in certain eras and cultures imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint reference to a spirit or deity.

The validity of the IP metaphor in today's world is generally assumed without question. But the IP metaphor is, kintmaradtak.hu all, just another metaphor - a story we tell to make sense of something we don't actually understand. And like all the metaphors that preceded it, it will certainly be cast aside at some point - either replaced by another imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint or, in the end, replaced by actual knowledge.

tok essay word count ib over a year ago, on a visit to one of the world's most prestigious research institutes, I challenged researchers there to account for intelligent human behaviour without reference to any aspect of the IP metaphor.

They couldn't do it, and when I politely raised the issue in subsequent email communications, they still had nothing to offer months later. They saw the problem.

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They didn't dismiss the challenge as trivial. But they couldn't offer an alternative. In other words, the IP metaphor is 'sticky'. It encumbers our thinking with language and ideas that are Light microscope essay powerful we have trouble thinking around them.

The faulty logic of the IP metaphor is easy enough to state. It is based on a faulty syllogism - one with two reasonable premises and a faulty imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint. Setting aside the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint language, the idea that humans must be information processors just because computers are information processors is just plain silly, and when, some day, the IP metaphor is finally abandoned, it will almost certainly be seen that way by historians, just as we now view the hydraulic and mechanical metaphors to be silly.

If the IP metaphor is so imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, why is it so sticky? What is stopping us from brushing it aside, just as we might brush aside a branch that was blocking our path? Is there a way to understand human intelligence without leaning on a flimsy intellectual crutch? And what price have we paid for leaning so heavily on this particular crutch for so long? The IP metaphor, after all, has been guiding the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint and thinking of a large number of researchers in multiple fields for decades.

In a classroom exercise I have conducted many times over the years, I begin by recruiting a student to draw a detailed picture of a dollar bill - 'as detailed as possible', I say - on the blackboard in front of the room. When the student has finished, I cover the drawing with a sheet of paper, remove a dollar bill from my wallet, tape it to the board, and ask the student to repeat the task.

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When he or she is done, I remove the cover from the first drawing, and the class comments on the differences. Because you might never have seen a demonstration like this, or because cover letter meeting selection criteria might have trouble imagining the outcome, I have asked Jinny Hyun, one of the student interns at the institute where I conduct my research, to make the two drawings.

Here is her drawing 'from memory' notice the metaphor: And here is the drawing she subsequently made with a dollar bill present: online creative writing courses for middle school students was as surprised by the outcome as you probably imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, but it is typical. As you can see, the drawing made in the absence of the dollar bill is imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint compared with the drawing made from an exemplar, even though Jinny has seen a dollar bill thousands of times.

What is the problem? Don't we have a 'representation' of the dollar bill 'stored' in a 'memory register' in our brains? Can't we imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint 'retrieve' it and use it to make our drawing? Obviously not, and a thousand years of neuroscience will never locate a representation of a dollar bill stored inside the human brain for the simple reason that it is not there to be found.

A wealth of brain studies tells us, in imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, that multiple and sometimes large areas of the brain are often involved in even the most mundane memory tasks.

When strong emotions are involved, millions of neurons can become more active. In a study of survivors of a imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint crash by the University of Toronto neuropsychologist Brian Levine and others, recalling the crash increased neural activity in 'the amygdala, medial temporal lobe, anterior and posterior midline, and visual cortex' of the passengers.

The idea, advanced by several scientists, that specific memories are somehow stored in individual neurons is preposterous; if anything, that assertion just pushes the problem of memory to an even more challenging level: So what is occurring when Jinny draws the dollar bill in its absence?

If Jinny had never seen a dollar bill before, her first drawing would probably have not resembled the second drawing at all. Having seen dollar bills before, she was changed in some way.

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Specifically, her brain was changed in a way that allowed her to visualise a dollar bill - that is, to re-experience seeing a dollar bill, at least to some extent. The difference between the two diagrams reminds us that visualising something that is, seeing something in its absence is far less accurate than seeing something in its presence. This is why we're much better at recognising than recalling.

Human brain found to contain multi-dimensional holographic geometry that might be involved in forming memories When we re-member something from the Latin re, 'again', and memorari, 'be mindful of'we have to try to relive an experience; but when we recognise something, we must merely be conscious of the fact that we have had this perceptual experience before. Perhaps you will object to this demonstration. Jinny had seen dollar bills before, but she hadn't made a deliberate imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint to 'memorise' the details.

Had she done so, you might argue, she could presumably have drawn the second image without the bill being present. Even in this imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, though, no image of the dollar bill has in any sense been 'stored' in Jinny's brain. She has simply become better prepared to draw it accurately, just as, through practice, a essay on fruits and vegetables becomes more skilled in playing a concerto without somehow inhaling a copy of the sheet music.

From this simple exercise, we can begin to build the framework of a metaphor-free theory of intelligent human behaviour - one in which the brain isn't completely empty, but is at least empty of the baggage of the IP metaphor. As we navigate through the world, we are changed by a variety of experiences. Of special note are experiences of three types: We observe what is happening around us other people behaving, sounds of music, instructions directed at us, words on pages, images on screens 2.

We are exposed to the pairing of unimportant stimuli such as sirens with important stimuli such as the appearance of police cars ; 3. We are punished or rewarded for behaving in certain ways. We become more effective in our lives if we change in ways that are consistent with these experiences - if we can now recite a poem or sing a song, if we are able to follow the instructions we are given, if we imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint to the unimportant stimuli more like we do to the important stimuli, if we refrain from behaving in ways that essay titles for harrison bergeron punished, if we behave more frequently in ways that were rewarded.

Misleading headlines notwithstanding, no one really has the slightest alishokri.000webhostapp.com allows us to sing the song or recite the poem under certain conditions.

When called on to perform, neither the song nor the poem is in any sense 'retrieved' from anywhere in the brain, any more than my finger movements are 'retrieved' when I tap my finger on my desk. We simply sing or recite - no retrieval necessary.

A few years ago, I asked the neuroscientist Eric Kandel of Columbia University - imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint of a Nobel Prize for identifying some of the chemical changes that take place in the neuronal synapses of the Aplysia a marine snail after it learns something - how long he thought it would take us to understand how human memory works.

A few cognitive scientists - notably Anthony Chemero of the University of Cincinnati, the author of Radical Embodied Cognitive Science - now completely reject the view that the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint brain works like a computer. The mainstream view is that we, like computers, make sense of the world by performing computations kintmaradtak.hu mental representations of it, but Chemero and others describe another way of understanding intelligent behaviour - as a direct interaction between organisms and their world.

My favourite example of the dramatic difference between the IP perspective and what some now call the 'anti-representational' view of human functioning involves two different ways of explaining how a baseball player manages to catch a fly ball - beautifully explicated by Michael McBeath, now at Arizona State University, and his colleagues in a paper in Science.

The IP perspective requires the player to formulate an estimate of various initial conditions of the ball's flight - the force of the impact, the angle of the trajectory, that kind of thing - then to create and analyse an internal model of the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint along which the ball will likely move, then to use that model to guide and adjust motor movements continuously in time in order to intercept the ball.

That is all well and good if we functioned as computers do, but McBeath and his colleagues gave a simpler account: This might sound complicated, but it is actually incredibly simple, and completely free of computations, representations and algorithms. Two determined psychology professors at Leeds Beckett University in the UK - Andrew Wilson and Sabrina Golonka - include the baseball example among many others that can be looked at simply and sensibly outside the IP framework.

They have been blogging for years about what they call a 'more coherent, naturalised approach to the scientific study of human behaviour This is far from a movement, however; the mainstream cognitive sciences continue to wallow uncritically in the IP metaphor, and some of the world's most influential thinkers have made grand predictions about humanity's future that depend on the validity of the metaphor.

One prediction - made by the futurist Kurzweil, the physicist Stephen Hawking and the neuroscientist Randal Koene, among others - is that, because human consciousness is supposedly like computer software, it will soon be possible to download human minds to a computer, in the circuits of which we will become immensely powerful intellectually and, quite possibly, immortal. This concept drove the plot of the dystopian movie Transcendence starring Johnny Depp as the Kurzweil-like imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint whose professional assignment writers was downloaded to the internet - with disastrous results for humanity.

Fortunately, because the IP metaphor is not even slightly valid, we will never have to worry about a human mind going amok in cyberspace; alas, we will also never achieve immortality through downloading. This is not only because of the absence of consciousness software in the brain; there is a deeper problem here - let's call it the uniqueness problem - which is both inspirational and depressing.

Because neither 'memory banks' nor 'representations' of stimuli exist in the brain, and because all that is required for us to function in the world is for the brain to change in an orderly way as a result of our experiences, there is no reason to believe that any two of us are changed the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint way by the same experience. If you and I attend the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint concert, the changes that occur in my brain when I imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint to Beethoven's 5th will almost certainly be completely different from the changes that occur in your brain.

Those changes, whatever they are, are built on the unique neural structure that already exists, each structure having developed over a lifetime of unique experiences. This is why, as Sir Frederic Bartlett demonstrated in his book Rememberingno two people will repeat a story they have heard the same way and why, over time, their recitations of the story will diverge more and more. A Complete Guide to Developing Real Superpowers and Extraordinary Abilities No 'copy' of the story is ever made; rather, each individual, upon hearing the story, changes to some extent - enough so that when asked about the story later in some cases, days, months or even years after Bartlett first read them the story - they can re-experience hearing the story to some extent, although not very well see the first drawing eighty8.000webhostapp.com the dollar bill, above.

This is inspirational, I suppose, because it means that each of us is truly unique, not just in our genetic makeup, but even in the way our brains change over time. It is also depressing, because it makes the task of the neuroscientist daunting almost beyond imagination.

For any given experience, orderly change could involve a thousand neurons, a million neurons or even the entire brain, with the pattern of change different in every brain.

Worse imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, even if we had the ability to take a snapshot of all of the brain's 86 billion neurons and then to simulate the state of those neurons in a computer, that vast pattern would mean nothing outside the body of the brain that produced it.

This is perhaps the most egregious way in which the IP metaphor has distorted our thinking about human functioning. Whereas computers do store exact copies of data - copies that can persist unchanged for long periods of time, even if the power has been turned off - the brain maintains our intellect only as long as it remains alive. There is no on-off switch. Either the brain keeps functioning, or we disappear.

What's more, as the neurobiologist Steven Rose pointed out in The Future of the Braina snapshot of the brain's current state might also be meaningless unless we knew the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint life history of that brain's owner - perhaps even about the social context in which he or she was raised. Shortage of skilled personnel in certain key areas. Non challant attitude of government toward the development of science and technology.

Poor funding of researches. Lack of modern medical and imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint facilities. The above mentioned points are the causes of the problems the nation is posed with due to poor leadership and administration. Its effect on National Development is apparently negative.

The effects negative are as follows: The following form the basis of this research study. To examine the effects of good leadership and administration in national development. To investigate the effect of bad leadership in national development.

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The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short ? comings of all the sectors of the nation would be Graduation speech english for elementary and displayed based on findings, thus proffering reliable solutions and measures to be taken, so as to attain the lofty height of good administration and National Development.

The benefit of this research work to the readers is that hopefully at the time they are done with the reading of the imperialism case study nigeria powerpoint, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration, including the weaknesses, strengths, success and achievement of both the past and present administration. Hence, this research work will serve as an eye opener, which will give the readers insight on how to participate and also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of national development.

It will help me become a better administrator, with good leadership qualities if applied, knowing what leadership style to adopt and apply as a potential leader.




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